MUSIC APPRECIATION 101
Study Guide for Exam III
Romanticism: Understand the general qualities of Romanticism and how the following elements play a role – fantasy, horror, enthusiasm for the Middle Ages, nature, the Industrial Revolution, rise of the middle class, literature.
The Eight Characteristics of Romantic Music: (p. 215)
1. Individuality of style
2. Expressive aims and subjects
3. Nationalism and exoticism
4. Program Music
5. Expressive tone color
6. Colorful harmony
7. Expanded range of dynamics, pitch and tempo
8. Forms: Miniature and Monumental
The piano was the favorite instrument of the Romantic age – what new improvements were made to the piano?
Romantic composers and the public:
Understand the changes that can be seen in the lives of composers… where they are from, what they are seeking to do, how they are making a living, etc.
The Art Song/ German Lied
What performing forces is an art song written for? What serves as the inspiration for an art song?
-Who was Goethe?
-what kind of forms can art songs be written in?
Franz Schubert (1797-1828)
-income came entirely from composition (he was helped greatly by friends)
-What are Schubertiads?
*** The Erlkonig (p. 225)
-narrative ballad of the supernatural by Goethe
-know the four characters involved
-know how Schubert makes distinctions between the characters
-What role does the piano play?
-only great composer who wrote almost exclusively for the piano
-brought up in Warsaw, at 21 moved to Paris and stayed
-Aurore Dudevant/George Sand
-Chopin’s works do not have literary programs, they are considered character pieces
-Chopin wrote the following types of pieces:
*** Etude in c minor “Revolutionary” (p.230)
-What is an etude? What is the purpose of this etude?
-Allegro con fuoco (allegro with fire)
-understand their relationship and the professional roles each played
-other career for Robert?
-How does Robert use musical symbols?
***Liebst du um Schonheit p. 232
-What kind of form is this song in?
-Define program music and contrast it with absolute music
-Know the four types of program music
Hector Berlioz (1803-1869)
-French romantic composer
-relationship with Harriet Smithson
-Prix de Rome
-unconventional music often using monumental forces
-other careers for Berlioz?
***Symphonie Fantastique, movement 4- “March to the scaffold” (p. 248)
-know the instruments involved, in particular the instruments used to represent Smithson
-program symphony, know the program that goes with this movement
Nationalism in 19th century music Read p. 251-269
-during 19th century, music serves as a unifying factor for many countries
-national spirit is often best identified by the “folk,” or peasant population
-use of folk songs and dances – music can also depict landscapes, or national styles
-Where is the greatest impact of nationalism felt?
-important national schools seen in Bohemia, Scandinavian countries, and Russia
-Nationalism in America? Which composers?
Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904)
-followed Smetana as the second main composer in the Czech national school
-studied in Prague, worked in the U.S. for three years
-director of the National Conservatory of Music in New York, 1892-1895
-played important role in encouraging American composers to write nationalistic music
***Symphony No. 9 in e minor (From the New World), first movement (p. 257)
-three themes in this sonata form movement
-What melody is the third theme related to?
-What is a pentatonic scale?
Guiseppe Verdi (1813-1901) Read p. 266-267
-first successful opera, Nabucco, led to Verdi becoming a symbol for Italian independence
-What did the letters V E R D I come to stand for?
-somewhat scandalous subject matter in some of his operas
-wrote for the public, not the musical elite and is known for his expressive melody
-more musical continuity in his operas – leading the way for Puccini and Wagner
Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924) Read p. 269-276
-very popular, successful opera composer
-short, memorable melodies suggest a very intense emotion
-continued in Verdi’s shoes by blurring the lines between aria and recitative
-What is verismo?
-What is exoticism in music? What operas did Puccini write using this concept?
***La Boheme (Bohemian Life) excerpt from Act I p. 271
-know storyline involved in this scene
-many fluctuations in tempo give this a very human feel
-love theme – what does this theme represent?
Richard Wagner (1813-1883) Read p. 276-283
-German opera composer
-had huge impact on music and the arts in general, of the Romantic period
-spent years developing his operas, very complex stories
-monumental productions involving expanded orchestras, large cast, etc.
-Wagner desired control of all aspects of his productions –where was the theater that he had built to accommodate his operas?
Terms to know:
-Der Ring des Nibelungen
-unending melody = continuous melodic flow within each act
***Die Walkure (The Valkyrie), Act I Love scene conclusion p. 278
-know storyline of this scene
-know how terms above apply to this scene
-what is Notung?
Brief CD 3,
Liebst du um Schonheit
Brief CD 3
Brief CD 3,
Symphonie Fantastique, 4th movement
Brief CD 3,
Symphony No. 9
Brief CD 3,
Excerpt from Act I
Brief CD 3,
Act I, Love scene
Brief CD 4,